Formerly Pact Consulting Limited

The Role of New Zealand Agricultural Processors in a more Sustainable Industry


In 1991 the Resource Management Act (R.M.A.) was introduced into New Zealand law. The R.M.A. requires territorial authorities to encourage sustainable and equitable development of communities especially through educational and information processes. Communities are requiring the agricultural industry to be more accountable for its environmental effects and its management of natural resources. In this study, farmers and staff in policy agencies have identified an important role for processors to integrate long term production signals for producers with environmental and resource concerns of consumers. In this way processors can support local educational and information initiatives that strengthen the sustainability of the whole agricultural industry.

Parminter TG 1995. The role of New Zealand agricultural processors in a more sustainable industry. Asia Pacific Agri-industry Community Conference, Australian Institute of Agricultural Science and the New Zealand Institute of Agricultural Science.

The use of a marketing approach to improve the development of new technologies: a case study


To predict farmer adoption of new technology, distinctive approaches have been developed within a number of social research disciplines. Some of these have focused on the range of personal characteristics of farmers. In others, marketing techniques have been used to analyse production limitations and farmer objectives to understand technology adoption. Biological scientists in New Zealand have in general acknowledged a role for social scientists in describing the economic and social conditions surrounding farmer innovativeness, but have seldom allowed that to influence the development of new technology. The central proposition this paper is that a marketing approach to the development of farm technologies will improve their adoption rate.

A survey of farmers in New Zealand’s Waitomo District has been previously reported in a study of their decisions to adopt beef breeding cow technologies (mating yearling heifers, using crossbred beef dairy cows, and terminal sires). In this paper ten attributes of the three technologies identified by farmers are reported as influencing their adoption or non-adoption decisions. When these attributes were included in logit regression equations, the equations were 70-74% correct in predicting which farmers had adopted technologies and which had not. It is concluded that new technologies will only be adopted if they meet farmer expectations when applied within farm production systems. To improve rates of adoption, researchers need a greater understanding of the attributes of new technologies that will be used by farmers to evaluate them. This can only be achieved by involving farmers at all stages of the developmental process.

Parminter TG 1994. The use of a marketing approach to improve the development of new technologies: a case study. Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production 54: 393-397.

Making Use of Technology Diffusion


Diffusion is the process by which the adoption of new technologies spreads over time throughout the members of a social system. Many science institutions target their extension efforts at adoption leaders in a population, and rely upon a trickle down of the technology to spread to the general population.

Diffusion is described as resulting from the effects of farmer characteristics, technology characteristics, farming systems, and communication networks available for diffusion.

The process of diffusion is enhanced by extension activities, and much can be done by scientists to improve the value of their technology to intended recipients. In order to do this, farmers should be involved during the development of technologies to identify the characteristics
most important to them and their fanning systems. New technologies should be evaluated for their effects upon the whole farm system and from farmer perceptions.

Sufficient information is needed by potential adopters for them to successfully implement new technology. The information they value most is provided by other farmers with scientific support for the essential principles they should apply.

Parminter TG, Parminter IA 1994. Making use of technology diffusion. Proceedings of the NZ Society of Animal Production 54:389-391.

Sheep and beef farming on the West Coast of the North Island of New Zealand


Over 40% of New Zealand’s occupied land area is devoted to hill country farming. The farms are typically owned, managed and worked by a single family with some help from seasonal labour. The property owned by L.D. and R.A. Neely is a typical example of the type of hill country farms found on the west coast of the North Island. It has an effective area of 520 ha and carries 5000 stock units, 30% of which are cattle. The sheep policy is to finish 60-100% of lambs produced from an improved Romney breed flock (with a 90-100% lambing rate). Friesian Hereford crossbred cows are kept for pasture management reasons and their progeny usually sold store. Dairy-beef crossbred bull calves brought from dairy farmers are hand reared to at least 15 months of age and most sold for slaughtering. In order to maintain the property’s viability during the recent agricultural downturn non-production costs were cut, sheep numbers reduced, cattle ratio increased and a greater proportion of young stock finished on the property. Restructuring the farming operation has enabled it to be maintained as a viable economic unit but the general rundown in rural servicing and increasing isolation is creating new challenges. The distinctive rural communities that have developed around hill country farming, its varied environment, and mix of livestock enterprises, have made hill country farming a vital part of New Zealand’s agricultural structure. It has historically provided the low cost investment in land that has created the opportunity for young families to build up their equity. Provided such families progress with sound enterprise decisions, this opportunity continues to exist.

Neeley RA, Parminter TG 1993. Sheep and beef farming on the West Coast of the North Island of New Zealand. Proceedings of the 17th International Grassland Congress, 999-1002.